Maritime transport of all kinds of goods is a global industry, increasingly dependent on energy efficiency and sustainability.


Naturally occurring encrustation (fouling) of unprotected ship hulls and submerged structures by marine organisms are working against this need. A huge variety of species like algae, weeds, and barnacles are settling on submerged surfaces. Fouling increases hull roughness and mass of vessels, leading to significantly higher fuel consumption, a consequence which again leads to an increase in cost of maritime transportation and green house gas emissions. At the same time there is a high risk of distributing non indigenous species between sea areas which are connected by shipping routes, with impairment of natural habitats as a possible result.


Consequently ship hulls and underwater structures are protected by applying antifouling coatings, which prevents the encrustation of fouling matter.  The most prominent active ingredient of biocidal antifouling is dicopperoxide. Spiess-Urania manufactures this active as Cuprous Oxide, Red of highest quality, for the global shipping industry.